WordPress at a glance

wp_salt() WP 1.0

Get salt to add to hashes.

Salts are created using secret keys. Secret keys are located in two places: in the database and in the wp-config.php file. The secret key in the database is randomly generated and will be appended to the secret keys in wp-config.php.

The secret keys in wp-config.php should be updated to strong, random keys to maximize security. Below is an example of how the secret key constants are defined. Do not paste this example directly into wp-config.php. Instead, have a secret key created just for you.

define('AUTH_KEY',         ' Xakm<o xQy rw4EMsLKM-?!T+,PFF})H4lzcW57AF0U@N@< >M%G4Yt>f`z]MON');
define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY',  'LzJ}op]mr|6+![P}Ak:uNdJCJZd>(Hx.-Mh#Tz)pCIU#uGEnfFz|f ;;eU%/U^O~');
define('LOGGED_IN_KEY',    '|i|Ux`9<p-h$aFf(qnT:sDO:D1P^wZ$$/Ra@miTJi9G;ddp_<q}6H1)o|a +&JCM');
define('NONCE_KEY',        '%:R{[P|,s.KuMltH5}cI;/k<Gx~j!f0I)m_sIyu+&NJZ)-iO>z7X>QYR0Z_XnZ@|');
define('AUTH_SALT',        'eZyT)-Naw]F8CwA*VaW#q*|.)g@o}||wf~@C-YSt}(dh_r6EbI#A,y|nU2{B#JBW');
define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', '!=oLUTXh,QW=H `}`L|9/^4-3 STz},T(w}W<I`.JjPi)<Bmf1v,HpGe}T1:Xt7n');
define('LOGGED_IN_SALT',   '+XSqHc;@Q*K_b|Z?NC[3H!!EONbh.n<+=uKR:>*c(u`g~EJBf#8u#R{mUEZrozmm');
define('NONCE_SALT',       'h`GXHhD>SLWVfg1(1(N{;.V!MoE(SfbA_ksP@&`+AycHcAV$+?@3q+rxV{%^VyKT');

Salting passwords helps against tools which has stored hashed values of common dictionary strings. The added values makes it harder to crack.

  • Static. Array. $cached_salts
  • Static. Array. $duplicated_keys

This is a pluggable function, and it can be replaced from plugin. It means that this function is defined (works) only after all plugins are connected (included), but before this moment the function has not yet been defined... Therefore, you cannot call this and all functions depended on this function directly from a plugin code. It must be called via hook plugins_loaded or later, for example on hook init.

Function replacement (override) — in a plugin you can create a function with the same name, then it will replace this function.

Hooks from function:
Return

String. Salt value

Usage

wp_salt( $scheme );
$scheme(string)
Authentication scheme (auth, secure_auth, logged_in, nonce)
Default: 'auth'

Code of wp_salt: wp-includes/pluggable.php VER 4.9.8

<?php
function wp_salt( $scheme = 'auth' ) {
	static $cached_salts = array();
	if ( isset( $cached_salts[ $scheme ] ) ) {
		/**
		 * Filters the WordPress salt.
		 *
		 * @since 2.5.0
		 *
		 * @param string $cached_salt Cached salt for the given scheme.
		 * @param string $scheme      Authentication scheme. Values include 'auth',
		 *                            'secure_auth', 'logged_in', and 'nonce'.
		 */
		return apply_filters( 'salt', $cached_salts[ $scheme ], $scheme );
	}

	static $duplicated_keys;
	if ( null === $duplicated_keys ) {
		$duplicated_keys = array( 'put your unique phrase here' => true );
		foreach ( array( 'AUTH', 'SECURE_AUTH', 'LOGGED_IN', 'NONCE', 'SECRET' ) as $first ) {
			foreach ( array( 'KEY', 'SALT' ) as $second ) {
				if ( ! defined( "{$first}_{$second}" ) ) {
					continue;
				}
				$value = constant( "{$first}_{$second}" );
				$duplicated_keys[ $value ] = isset( $duplicated_keys[ $value ] );
			}
		}
	}

	$values = array(
		'key' => '',
		'salt' => ''
	);
	if ( defined( 'SECRET_KEY' ) && SECRET_KEY && empty( $duplicated_keys[ SECRET_KEY ] ) ) {
		$values['key'] = SECRET_KEY;
	}
	if ( 'auth' == $scheme && defined( 'SECRET_SALT' ) && SECRET_SALT && empty( $duplicated_keys[ SECRET_SALT ] ) ) {
		$values['salt'] = SECRET_SALT;
	}

	if ( in_array( $scheme, array( 'auth', 'secure_auth', 'logged_in', 'nonce' ) ) ) {
		foreach ( array( 'key', 'salt' ) as $type ) {
			$const = strtoupper( "{$scheme}_{$type}" );
			if ( defined( $const ) && constant( $const ) && empty( $duplicated_keys[ constant( $const ) ] ) ) {
				$values[ $type ] = constant( $const );
			} elseif ( ! $values[ $type ] ) {
				$values[ $type ] = get_site_option( "{$scheme}_{$type}" );
				if ( ! $values[ $type ] ) {
					$values[ $type ] = wp_generate_password( 64, true, true );
					update_site_option( "{$scheme}_{$type}", $values[ $type ] );
				}
			}
		}
	} else {
		if ( ! $values['key'] ) {
			$values['key'] = get_site_option( 'secret_key' );
			if ( ! $values['key'] ) {
				$values['key'] = wp_generate_password( 64, true, true );
				update_site_option( 'secret_key', $values['key'] );
			}
		}
		$values['salt'] = hash_hmac( 'md5', $scheme, $values['key'] );
	}

	$cached_salts[ $scheme ] = $values['key'] . $values['salt'];

	/** This filter is documented in wp-includes/pluggable.php */
	return apply_filters( 'salt', $cached_salts[ $scheme ], $scheme );
}

Related Functions

From category: Security

No comments
    Hello, !     Log In . Register